【社會科學】

Mesopotamia∼兩河流域的古文明

吳宜娟、陳胤彤、武修謙、鄭麗芬


 

定義

參考書    索引摘要、書目

標題       中文 西文

核心館藏    中文 西文

分類號   中國圖書 美國國會 杜威

線上資料庫

期刊       中文 西文

視聽資料

網路資源  綜論  歷史  藝術  旅遊  政治宗教 / 時事

定義

 戰況激烈的美伊戰爭不僅重創伊拉克,還讓龐大的古文明遺產赤裸裸的暴露在殺戮戰場上,說它是一場文明浩劫決不為過。英美聯軍的目標巴格達是世界名著《天方夜譚》中的美麗城市,英美大舉轟炸將會毀了人類珍貴的古文明。

伊拉克,古希臘人稱之為「美索不達米亞(Mesopotamia)」,意思就是「兩河之間的土地」,因其位於底格奡答e(Tigris River)和幼發拉底河(Euphrates River)之間土壤肥沃的區域。

兩河文明,是人類歷史上最古老的文明之一。這個區域最早的居民可能人(Sumerians),在公元前4000年以前就這裡,建立最初的河流域文明。後來的阿卡德人(Akkadians迦勒底人(Chaldeans西台人(Hittites巴比倫人(Babylonians猶太人(Israelites腓尼基人(Phoenicians利底亞人(Lydians亞述人(Assyrians以及波斯人(Persians,相繼在此創建帝國,留下豐富古老的文化遺產。他們的貢獻包括:字母、學校、圖書館敘事詩、法律條文、數學、曆法、青銅器、鐵器、硬幣鑄造車輪、玻璃、一神教航海、農業灌溉

美索不達米亞平原的藝術成就正如居住此地的民族般呈現多元面貌,隨著時代的演進與地點的不同,因融入各自的風俗民情而較具裝飾性及強烈的風格。其神像具有人的形體,並將人類與動物揉合成特殊神奇的造型。因技術的提升和新媒體的發展,使得大型廟宇和壯觀的宮殿隨處可見。在此同時,人們首度記錄自己的歷史和詩歌,並將之與音樂結合,以笛子、豎琴和鼓來為他們的歌舞伴奏。

標題

1.      中文標題

山岳 -- 中亞

中亞 -- 描述與遊記

中東 -- 文化

中東 -- 地圖

中東 -- 社會生活與風俗

中東 -- 政治與政府

中東 -- 研究

中東 -- 描述與遊記

中東 -- 描述與遊記 -- 手冊,便覽等

中東 -- 概況

中東 -- 歷史

中東 -- 歷史 -- 20世紀

中東問題

文化史

幼發拉底河流域 -- 社會生活與風俗

伊拉克 -- 歷史 -- 古代(634年以前)

伊朗 -- 描述與遊記

伍德 (Wood, Michael, 1948- ) -- 傳記

回教 -- 亞洲

回教 -- 歷史

貝都族 -- 社會生活與風俗

亞洲 -- 描述與遊記

亞歷山大 -- 傳記

宗教 -- 中東

底格里斯河流域 -- 社會生活與風俗

阿富汗 -- 描述與遊記

建築 -- 中東 -- 歷史

美索不達米亞 -- 文化 -- 圖錄

美索不達米亞 -- 歷史

神話 -- 美索不達米亞

貿易 -- 中東 -- 手冊,便覽等

聖經 -- 研究與考訂

2.      西文標題

Afghanistan -- Description and travel

Alexander, the Great, 356-323 B.C -- Journeys -- Asia

Among the mountains : travels through Asia

Architecture, Islamic -- History

Asia -- Description and travel

Babylonia – Civilization

Biblical Studies

Byron, Robert, 1905-1941

Craniology -- Iran.

Culture shock -- Iran.

Customs union -- Iran.  

Danziger Nick 1958- -- Journeys -- Asia

Decentralization in government -- Iran -- Case studies.  

Decoration and ornament -- Iran.

Discourse analysis -- Social aspects -- Iran.  

Economic development -- Case studies.

Etiquette -- Iran.

Euphrates River Valley -- Social life and customs

Historic sites -- Asia

Iran -- Armed Forces -- Appropriations and expenditures.

Iran -- Armed Forces -- Procurement.

Iran -- Civilization.

Iran -- Defenses -- Economic aspects.

Iran -- Description and travel

Iran -- Description and travel -- 1979- -- Guidebooks.

Iran -- Description and travel -- Early works to 1800.

Iran -- Description and travel -- Guide-books

Iran -- Description and travel -- Maps.  

Iran -- Economic conditions -- 1945-1979 -- Case studies.

Iran -- Intellectual life

Iran -- Military policy -- Economic aspects.

Iran -- Politics and government-- 1941-1979 -- Case studies.

Iran -- Social life and customs -- 20th century.

Iran under the monarchy

Iranians -- Ethnic identity.

Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988 -- Economic aspects.

Iraq -- defenses -- Economic aspects.

Islam -- 20th century

Islam and politics -- Middle East

Middle East -- Description and travel

Middle East -- Politics and government -- 1945-

Naipaul, V. S.(Vidiadhar Surajprasad), 1932- -- Journeys -- Islamic countries

National characteristics, Iranian.

Persian prose literature -- History and criticism.

Religion

Social structure -- Iran -- Case studies.

Tigris River Valley -- Social life and cus

Wood, Michael, 1948-

分類號

1.      中國圖書分類法

209

258.3

259

338

480

558.535

578.1

600

670

719

719.5

730

735

735.5

735.9

915

930

955

992

 

2.      美國國會分類法

DS  The Islamic World

DS  Southwestern Asia. Ancient Orient. Near East

DS  Iraq

DS  Ancient Western and Central Asia

3.      杜威分類法

200.935

299.21

299.932

398.20935

520

520.935

709.38

720.9567

722

900

909.1

910

913

930

935

935.009732

935.01

939.2

939.4

956.7

期刊

1.      西文期刊

(1)         Acta ophthalmologica. Supplementum.

(2)         Ageing and Society

(3)         American anthropologist

(4)         American antiquity

(5)         American journal of archaeology : the journal of the Archaeological Institute of America

(6)         American Journal of Nephrology

(7)         Annals of science

(8)         Antiquity

(9)         Aramco world

(10)      Archaeology

(11)      Archive for history of exact sciences

(12)      Art & antiques

(13)      BAR international series (supplementary)

(14)      Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research

(15)      Bulletin of the History of Medicine

(16)      Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

(17)      Cambridge Archaeological Journal

(18)      Cartographica.

(19)      Clay minerals

(20)      Colorado Libraries

(21)      Communications in soil science and plant analysis

(22)      Contributions in economics and economic history

(23)      Contributions in political science

(24)      Critical Perspectives on Accounting

(25)      Current anthropology

(26)      Denver journal of international law and policy.

(27)      Diogenes

(28)      Discover.

(29)      Drug news & perspectives

(30)      Entomological revue

(31)      Expedition

(32)      Fate.

(33)      Folklore

(34)      Folklore (London, England)

(35)      Geographical : the Royal Geographical Society magazine.

(36)      Geomagnetism and aeronomy

(37)      Global and planetary change

(38)      Historia Mathematica

(39)      Integrative physiological and behavioral science : the official journal of the Pavlovian Society.

(40)      Irrigation and Drainage Systems

(41)      Journal for the history of astronomy

(42)      Journal for the study of the Old Testament

(43)      Journal of Anthropological Archaeology

(44)      Journal of economic and social history of the orient

(45)      Journal Of Islamic Studies

(46)      Journal of Near Eastern studies

(47)      Journal of petroleum geology

(48)      Journal of the American Oriental Society

(49)      Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

(50)      Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society

(51)      Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland

(52)      Journal of theological studies.

(53)      Journal of world prehistory

(54)      La Revue du praticien

(55)      Libraries & culture

(56)      Magyar állatorvosok lapja

(57)      Marine and petroleum geology

(58)      Medical history

(59)      Middle Eastern studies

(60)      National geographic.

(61)      Numen.

(62)      Orientalia.

(63)      Orvosi hetilap

(64)      ournal of economic and social history of the orient

(65)      Religion

(66)      Science.

(67)      Scientific American

(68)      Sedimentology

(69)      Source : notes in the history of art. XII

(70)      The American historical review

(71)      The American Journal of Economics and Sociology

(72)      The American journal of legal history

(73)      The Ancient world.

(74)      The Biblical archaeologist

(75)      The Biblical archaeology review.

(76)      The BYU journal of public law

(77)      The Cartographic journal

(78)      The Catholic Biblical Quarterly

(79)      The Classical review

(80)      The Classical world

(81)      The Geographical Magazine

(82)      The Historian

(83)      The Historian; a journal of history

(84)      The Journal of biocommunication

(85)      The Journal of Jewish studies

(86)      The Library

(87)      the magazine of Franco Maria Ricc

(88)      The Mariner's mirror

(89)      The Nation

(90)      The Pharos of Alpha Omega Alpha-Honor Medical Society

(91)      The Unesco courier

(92)      Thyroid

(93)      Time

(94)      TLS, the Times literary supplement

(95)      Tropical Medicine & International Health

(96)      Veterinaria Argentina

(97)      Visible language

(98)      Vistas in astronomy

(99)      World archaeology

2.      中文期刊

(1)         中國文化月刊

(2)         國立歷史博物館學報

(3)         國立歷史博物館館刊(歷史文物)

(4)         歷史月刊

(5)         聯合文學

(6)         藝術家

參考書

1.        大英百科全書

2.        大美百科全書

3.        中國大百科全書

索引、摘要及書目

1.        中文期刊聯合目錄

2.        全國圖書資訊網路(NBINet)–圖書聯合目錄

3.        OCLC WorldCat

核心館藏

1.      中文

(1)         文明曙光 : 美索不達米亞 : 羅浮宮兩河流域珍藏展 = La Mesopotamie : entre le Tigre et L'euphrate, 937.121, 史博館編, 史博館, 總圖三樓, 民90

(2)         文明的搖籃 : 美索不達米亞, 937.121 219, 周旻樺作 趙國宗繪圖, 史博館, 社資四樓, 民90

(3)         美索不達米亞神廟起源之研究 = The research of temples' origin in Mesopotamia, 58.135 9011, 黃振甫, 撰者, 社資論文區, 民90, 碩士論文--私立華梵大學東方人文思想研究所

(4)         美索不達米亞神話故事, 283.71 074, 矢島文夫, 星光, 總圖三樓, 民90,

(5)         美索不達米亞與聖經 : 從亞伯拉罕到亞歷山大, 241.01 4141-φ, 莊新泉, 聖經資源中心, 總圖三樓, 民90

(6)         世界遺蹟大觀 = Great monunents of the ancient world, 918 440, , 華園 : 華成, 總圖三樓, 76

(7)         古代埃及與古代兩河流域, S761.21 2567, 北京 生活讀書新知三聯書店, 國研5樓, 46

2.      西文

(1)         Mesopotamia : writing, reasoning, and the gods / Bottero, Jean;Chicago : University of Chicago Press, c1992,總圖四樓,935 B751

(2)         Plus vieille religion en Mesopotamie. English; 總圖; 299.21 B751, 2001

(3)         Women of Babylon : gender and representation in Mesopotamia / Zaiab Bahrani; 總圖; HQ1137.I72 B34, 2001

(4)         Early civilizations of the old world : the formative histories of Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, India, and China / Charles Keith Maisels; 不詳, 2001

(5)         Empire and elites after the Muslim conquest : the transformation of northern Mesopotamia / Chase F. Robinson; 總圖; 956.74 R658, 2000

(6)         Gods, demons, and symbols of ancient Mesopotamia : an illustrated dictionary / Jeremy Black and Anthony Green ; illustrations by Tessa Rickards; 總圖; 200.935 B627, 1998

(7)         Life and loyalty : a study in the socio-religious culture of Syria and Mesopotamia in the Graeco-Roman period based on epigraphical evidence / by Klaas Dijkstra; 總圖; 939.4 D575, 1995

(8)         Early Mesopotamia : society and economy at the dawn of history / J.N. Postgate; 總圖; 935 P857, 1994

(9)         Mesopotamie. English; 總圖; 935 B751, 1992

(10)      Ancient Mesopotamia : portrait of a dead civilization / by A. Leo Oppenheim; 總圖; 935 O62, 1977

(11)      The lands of the Eastern Caliphate : Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur; 總圖; 911.56 L567

(12)      Life and loyalty : a study in the socio-religious culture of Syria and Mesopotamia in the Graeco-Roman period based on epigraphical evidence / by Klaas Dijkstra; 總圖; 939.4 D575, 1995

(13)      Early Mesopotamia : society and economy at the dawn of history / J.N. Postgate; 總圖; 935 P857, 1994

(14)      Mesopotamie. English; 總圖; 935 B751, 1992

(15)      Ancient Mesopotamia : portrait of a dead civilization / by A. Leo Oppenheim; 總圖; 935 O62, 1977

(16)      The lands of the Eastern Caliphate : Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur; 總圖; 911.56 L567, 1966

(17)      Northern Mesopotamia and Syria / Jean Robert Kupper; 總圖; 951 K965,1963

(18)      The intellectual adventure of ancient man : an essay on speculative thought in the ancient Near East / H. and H. A. Frankfort, John A. Wilson, Thorkild Jacobsen [and] William A. Irwin; 總圖; 291.044 F853, 1946

(19)      The vanishing Hebrew harlot [electronic resource] : a diachronic and synchronic study of the root znh / by Irene Erna Riegner; 網路電子資源; WD 378.7481 R554, 2001(University of California, Berkeley的博碩士論文之線上全文)

(20)      Biblical narration and the death of the rhapsode [electronic resource] / by Robert Saiji Kawashima; 網路電子資源; WD 378.79467 K22, 2001(University of California, Berkeley的博碩士論文之線上全文) 

線上資料庫

Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia:Online Grolier 百科全書線上版。

視聽資料

發現者 (),製作人連惠心,華暘傳播公司,頤倫影視製作公司,臺灣電視公司製作;VC 913 453 v.1, 總圖視聽室。

網路資源

1.     綜論

網站:走進伊拉克--被遺忘的兩河文明[]

網址:http://www.china.org.cn/chinese/zhuanti/275457.htm

簡介:介提供美索不達米亞文明、古代帝國、文物等介紹,包括信仰習俗、建築藝術、帝國衰落之謎之古遺址。

 

網站:世界古代史

網址:http://www.geocities.com/worldhistoryhk/222index.htm

簡介:提供世界古代史之相關內容,包括兩河流域、埃及、印度、希臘以及羅馬帝國等範圍,其中在「羅馬帝國」方面包含各式地圖、台伯河、國君、羅馬大道、日常生活、生活情趣、藝術、食物、神靈、雜物、運輸、軍事、賽馬車以及腓尼基等14項主題。

 

網站:美索不達米亞專題報導

網址:http://art.network.com.tw/ArtInformation/Project/hisactive.htm

簡介:由國立歷史博物館建置,內容包含美索不達米亞大事記、早期城市、圖像文字等。

 

網站:羅浮宮兩河流域珍藏展--文明的曙光•美索不達米亞

網址:http://udn.com/SPECIAL_ISSUE/CULTURE/MESO/index.htm

簡介:為羅浮宮兩河流域之珍藏品至國立歷史博物館展出時,與該展覽有關的相關資訊,如展覽介紹最新消息、活動公告等。

 

網站:Mesopotamia - The British Museum

網址:http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/menu.html

簡介The British Museum's interactive guide to Assyria, Babylonia and Sumer. Geography, time, writing…….

 

網站:Iraq-Museum Baghdad

網址:http://info.uibk.ac.at/c/c6/c616/museum/museum.html

簡介:館藏可說是世界數一數二的博物館,瞭解古代東方和回教世界的歷史發展。

 

網站:Mesopotamia.

網址:http://www.crystalinks.com/meso.html

簡介:Mesopotamia time line, the fertile crescent , history, Sumerian clay tablets - buried treasure, economy, irrigation, language, disease – cures.

 

網站:The Babylonian Jewry Heritage Center

網址:http://www.babylonjewry.org.il/new/english/index.html

簡介:The Babylonian Jewry Heritage Center is both a Research Institute and a Museum, with an impressive collection of ethnographic material, judaica, archival documents, books and manuscripts.

 

網站:Museum - Babylon

網址:http://www.archaeform.com/mu_babylon.html

簡介:Babylon Mesopotamia, the fertile plain between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris, is the land of the oldest advanced high culture of our world. It is the origin of writing, science, literature and state organisation.

2.     歷史地理

網站:Iraq - The cradle of civilization at riskCultural heritage and historical monuments

網址:http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~museum/iraq.html

簡介:The current focus looks from a cultural and historical perspective at present developments concerning the military conflict in Iraq. Included are also special editions of the News Digest which contains articles from the time of the first Gulf War to the present dealing with the historical monuments, archaeological sites, and museums in Iraq. The editorial staff thanks Dr. Margrit Sollbach-Papeler, a historian with special interest in and detailed knowledge of the ancient civilizations and historical places of the Near East.

 

網站:Asia Minor

網址:http://www.asia-minor.org/Prehistory.htm

簡介:“Asia-Minor” is proud to bring you information on the ancient history of Anatolia and the Aegean coast according timelines and subject. Otherwise, it also provides you with updated information so that you can enjoy learning, reading, or just planning an educational trip.

 

網站:NM's Creative Impulseevelopment of Western Civilization I /world History IMesopotamia

網址:http://history.evansville.net/meso.html#History

簡介:The Mesopotamian plain was part of the Fertile Crescent. Situated between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, the area was the birth place of the varied civilizations that developed writing, schools, libraries, written law codes and moved us from prehistory to history. The Sumerians, Akkadians, Chaldeans, Hittites, Babylonians, Israelites, Phoenicians, Lydians, Assyrians and Persians established the foundations for future Civilizations.

 

網站:Mr. Dowling's Electronic PassportBrowse the world in a Virtual Classroom/Mesopotamia

網址:http://www.mrdowling.com/603mesopotamia.html

簡介:Discusses the history and geography of Mesopotamia up through the time of the Assyrians, illustrated... Learn about Mesopotamia, the Fertile Crescent and the development of civilization in the Electronic passport at www.mrdowling.com. The Greeks later called this region Mesopotamia, which means "between the rivers." Many different civilizations developed in this small region.

 

網站:Mesopotamia

網址:http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/MESO/MESO.HTM

簡介:Mesopotamia stands at the very dawn of human recorded history; we are often fooled into thinking of Mesopotamia as some distant relative, but it is, in fact, a culture stunningly different from our own.

 

網站:Steven資訊網

網址:http://www.geocities.com/steven_sit/

簡介:針對遠古時代歷史、消失的文明的介紹。

 

網站:History of Iraq

網址:http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Iraq

簡介:From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

 

網站:Brief History of Iraq

網址:http://www.iraqiamericans.com/brhist.asp

簡介:The Iraqi American Council’s website works to promote democracy and human rights in Iraq, to empower Iraqi-Americans to participate in mainstream American life and to preserve their cultural heritage.

3.     藝術

網站:Hung的藝術欣賞

網址:http://home.kimo.com.tw/hct06157/

簡介:為輔仁大學洪進丁老師建置的網頁,提供藝術的內涵與定義,針對西洋藝術、中國藝術以及台灣藝術等依序加以介紹,並有豐富的圖片資料,相當具有參考價值,另外還提供國內外著名藝術網站之連結等。

 

網站:大都會博物館

網址:http://home.kimo.com.tw/hct06157/

簡介:網羅世界各時代(史前至近代)、各地域的藝術品,收藏品極豐富。

 

網站:Louvre Museum

網址:http://www.louvre.fr/

簡介:建於十二世紀的羅浮宮,收藏品多達三十萬件,收藏品分為幾個大方向:古東方、古埃及、古希臘和古羅馬文物、雕刻、繪畫、素描及工藝品。

 

網站:National Museum of Iran

網址:http://www.nationalmuseumofiran.com/en/main.htm

簡介:提供虛擬之旅,讓遠在重洋之外的人也可以欣賞該館館藏。

 

網站:The Golestan Palace Museum

網址:http://www.golestanpalace.org/

簡介:館內的收藏品以陶瓷器居多,其中還有一套由拿破崙一世餽贈的Serres窯燒製的餐具組、還有卡夏爾王朝時的大理石王座及地毯等、收藏在卡夏爾王起居室及書庫的一些裝飾品及畫像,值得一看。

4.     旅遊

網站:四方通行旅遊站台

網址:http://www.easytravel.com.tw/index.asp

簡介:為榮獲經濟部審查為優良電子商店,介紹國內及世界各國著名景點及旅遊方式等。

 

網站:外交部領事事務局

網址:http://www.boca.gov.tw/

簡介:領事事務局為一隸屬外交部的獨立機關,提供各國基本資訊及特殊資訊。

5.     政治宗教 / 時事

網站:中時新聞專輯【美伊開打 全球震顫】

網址:http://forums.chinatimes.com.tw/report/GulfWar2003/Main.htm

簡介:關於美伊戰事之系列專題報導一。

 

網站:中時新聞專輯【伊拉克烽火實錄】

網址:http://forums.chinatimes.com.tw/special/iraq/main.htm

簡介:關於美伊戰事之系列專題報導二。

 

網站:中時新聞專輯【美伊戰雲密布】

網址:http://forums.chinatimes.com.tw/report/Gulfwar/

簡介:關於美伊戰事之系列專題報導三。

 

網站:Worker Communist Party of Iraq

網址:http://www.wpiraq.org/english/

簡介:伊拉克工黨(共產黨)的網站。

 

網站:Redcross

網址:http://www.redcross.org.tw/index.htm

簡介:紅十字會國際委員會(ICRC)美伊戰事網頁專頁

 

網站:World Vision

網址:http://www.wvi.org/home.shtml

簡介:世界展望會對伊拉克一系列的關懷報導。

 

網站:United Nations

網址:http://www.un.org/english/

簡介:聯合國設置伊拉克事務的專題報導。

 

網站:The Jews of Iraq. (Mitchell Bard.)

網址:www.us-israel.org/jsource/anti-semitism/iraqijews.html

簡介:簡介伊拉克猶太人的宗教史。

 

網站:Iraq: Religions & Peoples

網址:http://i-cias.com/e.o/iraq_4.htm

簡介:介紹伊拉克的民族與宗教。

 

網站:Sunnites, Sunni

網址:http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/sunnites.htm

簡介:BELIEVE is a collection of over 2,000 articles by respected scholars on around 900 religious subjects. Protestant Christian Churches, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Orthodox Church, all follow Faiths which involve hundreds of individual subjects, which are each thoroughly presented in BELIEVE.

 

網站:Christian History Corner

網址:http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2003/105/54.0.html

簡介:During the fourth century, Persia's ongoing conflict with the newly Christianized Roman Empire threatened to destroy the Christians living in the Mesopotamian lands of modern-day Iraq. Mesopotamia emerged on the New Testament scene during Pentecost in Acts 2:9 when Luke noted the presence of Parthians from Mesopotamia.

 

網站:History : the Faded Glory of Iraq

網址:http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/special_packages/iraq/4926092.htm

簡介:Saddam Hussein's nation has been home to some of the most powerful empires in history. Iraq over the centuries saw the birth of civilization, built the first cities and vied to lead the Arab world. War could alter its history once again.

 

網站:Iraqi History Series

網址:http://www.theworld.org/Iraq/

簡介:The daily international news magazine, PRI's The World, is a co-production of the BBC World Service, PRI and WGBH Boston.